The knowledge of immunisation is ancient and dates back to the 17th-century period. Edward Jenner was the founder of the practice of vaccinology in Western countries. In the year 1796, he inoculated a young boy with cowpox virus vaccination thus demonstrating immunity to the deadly smallpox disease.
Vaccines are medically prepared products that are used to stimulate or activate the production of immunoglobulin (antibodies) to provide immunity against any one specific disease or several illnesses.
Classification of Vaccines
Vaccines can be classified into 4 main categories. They are as follows:
- a) Live-attenuated vaccines
Live vaccines are produced by using weakened germ form that is responsible for causing a particular disease. The vaccine strains are very similar to the naturally caused infection. They help prevent the infection and build a powerful immune response to that disease.
One or two doses of live vaccines can offer security or protection against that germ or infection for a very long period of time. Live attenuated vaccines protect you from measles, mumps, rubella, rota-virus, chickenpox, yellow fever, and smallpox.
- b) Inactivated vaccines
In these vaccines, scientists use the killed or executed version of the disease-causing germ. The inactivated vaccines provide lesser immunity that the live vaccines. Therefore, you may need many doses of booster shots to get maximum immunity against that disease. The inactivated vaccines guard against flu, polio, rabies, and hepatitis A.
- c) Sub-unit, polysaccharides, conjugate, and recombinant vaccines
Subunit, recombinant, polysaccharides, and conjugate vaccinations are made using specific parts or pieces of the germ such as sugar, capsid or protein components. They provide a very strong and unbeatable immune response targeting the main parts of the germ.
However, booster shots are needed to get continuous protection against the disease. These vaccines safeguard you against Influenza type B or Hib, hepatitis B. HPV or Human papillomavirus, whooping cough, and shingles to name a few.
- d) Toxoid vaccines
Such vaccines are produced using toxin products created by the disease-causing germ. The immune response targets the toxin part of the germ. You may require booster vaccine shots to get lifetime protection against the germs or diseases. Toxoid vaccinations protect you against tetanus and diphtheria.
Killed Vaccine List
There are two main types of vaccines that fall under the killed vaccine category.
- a) Polio Vaccine
- b) Influenza Vaccine
- a) Typhoid Vaccine
- b) Cholera Vaccine
- c) Plague Vaccine
- d) Pertussis Vaccine
Killed Vaccine VS Live Vaccine
Both live and inactivated vaccines use specific germ type to help you develop immunity against that germ. The major difference between the two vaccines is that a live attenuated vaccine carries an active yet weak germ component, whereas killed vaccines contain killed germ components.
Inactivated vaccines can be given even to those with poor immune systems like people suffering from HIV or cancer. A killed vaccine cannot attack the body and is totally safe for people with low immunity. These vaccines can be easily transported and stored. They can also be freeze-dried.
Activated or live vaccines trigger a strong immune response and even a low dosage of the vaccine is sufficient to prevent diseases. Booster doses are not required. Live vaccines can be given to healthy people and those with good immune systems. You can find the best clinic or hospital in Dubai offering immunisation.
New Vaccines & Future of Vaccines
In the year 2016, as many as 191 WHO country members decided to introduce Hib vaccine and 190 WHO member countries introduced Hepatitis B vaccination. Similarly, 132 WHO country members started using pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) and rota-virus vaccine for infants. DNA vaccines with long-term immunity features and Recombinant vector vaccines that act similar to a natural infection were also introduced.
You can also find types of vaccines PPT presentations online for gathering more authentic info on the subject of vaccinations or vaccines.
What are the 4 primary types of vaccines?
4 main type of vaccine includes live virus vaccines, inactivated vaccines, toxoid vaccines, and biosynthetic vaccines.
What are the two main types of vaccines?
Live-attenuated vaccines and inactivated vaccines are the two main types of vaccines.
Which is a type of toxoid vaccine?
Toxoid vaccinations are produced by creating a toxin component from the germ, which is harmless yet elicits a strong immune response from your immune system. Examples are tetanus vaccines and diphtheria vaccines.